Industrial/Agricultural Hemp

Your guide to hemp education.

Hemp, or industrial/agricultural hemp, (AKA — the male form of the marijuana plant) is a rapidly growing plant of the Cannabis Sativa species, and typically found in the northern hemisphere.

It is tall, standing up to 16 feet (5 meters). Hemp, when grown to produce medicinal CBD is a bit shorter, standing roughly up to 5 feet (1.5 meters) and has many more branches and leaves. Agricultural hemp and medical marijuana both come from the Cannabis Sativa L. species.

Hemp, the male plant, is also known to have a much lower content of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) than it's female variety, best known formally as marijuana. We'll cover more on the finer differences and details later.

Agricultural hemp has been used in fiber crafting for 10,000 years and counting, and can be refined into a variety of commercial items including paper, textiles, clothing, biodegradable plastics, paint, insulation, biofuel, food, and animal feed.

It has been used medicinally for a better part of 5000 years. It's recorded as far back as 2900 BC - Chinese Emperor Fu Hsi, who is credited with bringing civilization to China, as having made numerous references to 'Ma', the Chinese word fo Cannabis. He claimed it possessed both yin and yang.

In addition, this guide to Hemp Education will cover:
Nuance of Anatomy
  1. The Cannabis Sativa species as a whole contains the psychoactive component tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), yet the differentiation between the medicinal and industrial/agricultural plants is in the distinct variates of the species, their cannabidiol compositions, and what compounds are processed for extraction and use. For example, hemp (the male variate of marijuana) naturally little to no THC, and yet is abundantly full of other CBD medicinal benefits. Whereas the female variate has tons of THC, as well as the many benefits of CBD, but due to the levels of THC, has certain psychoactive compounds. These compounds further carry with them risks and legalities of use.
  2. Marijuana can be more simply broken down as male and female within the Cannabis (male/hemp) or (female/marijuana) plant types. With the variety of purposes and benefits dependent upon further distinct characteristics and parts of the plants used.
  3. With risk of complicating things, I should tell you there is also such a thing as a cannabis hermaphroditic. Yep, you read that right. Hermaphrodite plants are capable of pollinating themselves, because they contain both female and male sex organs. One can only imagine this is a true nuisance for growers! Essentially, all cannabis plants, such as the hemp and marijuana relatives, can be both male and female. The male dies off shortly after it has done its job pollenating, while the female plants grow to full maturity and are then harvested.
Female (Marijuana)
  1. The female cannabis plant, also known as the marijuana plant, is typically built up of a stem with roots that dig deep into the earth, with fan leaves and sometimes colas that stick out in between some of the fan/water leaves. These colas are a mass collection of the buds, which are the flowers and the part of the plant that can get you high.
  2. These buds contain sugar leaves, which are coated with those crystal-appearing trichomes (the component that directly contains the THC). Additionally, pistils and stigmas are those tiny, usually orange hairs mixed amongst the sugar leaves. Lastly, there are calyxes and bracts, which also contain potent quantities of cannabinoids.
Male (Hemp)
  1. The male cannabis plant, also known as Cannabidiol (CBD), cannot be used to get high. CBD buds are located within the CBD flowers, and following cultivation season, the flowers are trimmed down until only the CBD buds remain. CBD buds can be used for tinctures, compresses, or vaping, or put in tea, food, and many other products.
What's A CBD Flower?
  1. CBD flowers are manually harvested from female hemp plants. CBD flowers are large and secrete resin. Hemp plants are traditionally tall (up to 5 meters) and branchy, and less bushy than their marijuana relatives — although hemp plants produced for CBD are a bit shorter and have more branches than industrial hemp plants used for fiber.
  2. CBD flowers extend from the ends of long branches and look different than their male counterparts. CBD flowers are bushy, thick, and contain the cola, pistils, and bract/calyx. Female CBD flowers grow in clusters on secondary branches, and consist of a single green leaf calyx (the leaves surrounding the budding flower), and pistils. On a hemp or marijuana plant, you will see the recognizable leaves.
What's A CBD Bud?
  1. A CBD or hemp plant bud is different from a marijuana plant because it doesn’t contain enough THC to produce psychoactive effects. Buds may grow all along a hemp branch, and include the cola or apical bud, pistils, bract/calyx, and trichomes. The colas are at the ends of the branches, and contain the largest CBD buds. Gardeners can use different methods to make buds grow larger or more often.
  2. The calyx is the actual bud — not the cola. The calyxes, or CBD buds, contain the highest tricome concentration, and thus the highest amount of CBD. Female pistils look like white hairs poking out from the each calyx, and may turn red, orange, or brown. Pistils capture pollen from male plants, but do not contain many trichomes. Trichomes are barely visible with the naked eye, and are the “crystals” people refer to on cannabis or hemp plants. Trichomes are translucent, mushroom-shaped glands that appear on the
Undressing Marijuana
  1. Both hemp and marijuana can be stripped of THC in order to act in accordance with governing laws, and meet desired formulations for different uses, however creating a CBD product from marijuana which is free of all or most THC is far more complicating. For this reason, CBD dominant strains are typically easier to produce from hemp, rather than from marijuana, as hemp is already very low in THC and exceptionally high in CBD. They may be relatives, however they have different interests.
  2. Marijuana will always carry more THC than CBD. It will therefor also serve up hefty portions of psychoactive effect. It is still very useful in many medicinal ways, especially in combination with CBD. Furthermore, the higher the CBD in these strains, the less the 'high', as the psychoactive is countered. This leaves you with more of the medicinal benefits and less of the "high". As an example, a 1:1 ratio is effectively equal parts THC & CBD, and the CBD will counter the high of the THC, yet allow you benefit from the medicinal effects all-around.
  4. SUMMARY: THC is found in the female cannabis plant, in its resinous flowers that are known to provide the high that many marijuana consumers seek. On the other hand, the male cannabis plant, known also as hemp, may have little or no THC present. Both the male and female cannabid plants contain CBD and therefore are both suitable options for cannabidiol oil extraction and processing, however when derived from hemp, the contents of CBD is far more potent.
What Is Hemp Derived CBD?
  1. Hemp, the male cannabis plant, also known as Cannabidiol (CBD), has lower concentrations of THC and higher concentrations of cannabinol (CBD). This means the psychoactive effect is far less or eliminated all together. It cannot be used to "get high".
  2. The basic difference between THC vs. CBD, and why one produces euphoria and the other does not, basically boils down to understanding the function of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in our brain, which are concentrated in our central nervous system. Quite simply, THC easily binds with CB1 cannabinoid receptors in our brain, while CBD lacks an affinity to bind with CB1 cannabinoid binds receptors. Therefore, a hemp derived CBD will not have the ability the to bind with CB1 cannabinoid receptors due to its lack of THC, making the medicinal benefits outweigh its potential for euphoria.
  3. While CBD can be derived from both the male and the female (marijuana) plants, hemp (male) CBD is unique in that it does not have resinous, cannabinoid-packed flowers. That said, the rest of this crop does contain copious cannabidiol amongst the stalk, leaves and more. Because the hemp CBD plant contains little or no THC, it is then possible, more-so than the technically difficult processes when using marijuana, to purify and eliminate THC from the plant. It is more easily produced for a variety of uses. Medicinal being one of extraordinary benefit!
  4. The legality of hemp CBD still varies widely between countries however strides are being made to validate its vitality of benefit. A good manufacturer, today, will have authorizations to sell across the USA and many additional countries through stringent qualifications and standards.
  5. In order to sell across the globe, as we are able, product must go through careful and unique processes to remove all or most of the THC and carry a less than .03 percent content.
What Are Cannabinoids?
  1. Cannabinoids are the chemical compounds (such as THC, CBD, CBG, CBD and so forth) secreted by cannabis flowers that essentially work by interacting with our bodies by imitating compounds that we naturally produce. These compounds are called endocannabinoids. Endocannabinoids activate to maintain internal stability and health. When there is a deficiency or problem with our endocannabinoid system, unpleasant symptoms and physical complications can occur. The endocannabinoids then act as mediation messengers and communicate between cells, in an effort to realign stability and bring about health. That said, often times the endocannabinoid system could use some help.
  2. So, when we consume cannabis, cannabinoids bind to receptor sites throughout our brain (CB1 receptors) and our body (CB2 receptors). Different cannabinoids have different effects depending on which receptors they bind to. For example, THC binds to receptors in the brain whereas CBD has many more receptors located throughout the body.
  3. Cannabis contains at least 85 types of cannabinoids, many of which have documented medical value. Products and strains can be developed to deliver larger doses of different cannabinoids, Therefor, a unique cannabinoid profile of a given product will determine how it will interact with your endocannabinoid system to provide relief from such things as pain, nausea, anxiety, inflammation, and many more ailments. The cannabinoid profile is how one determines the many different types of activation and symptom relief that is achievable from one product to another.
Extracting CBD From HEMP
  1. CBD can be extracted from marijuana or industrial hemp plants. For legality purposes, many CBD products are extracted from the stalks and stems of industrial hemp plants which are cannabis plants with .3% THC or less so they qualify as “industrial hemp”. Once cultivated, cannabis plants are lifted from the ground and brought to an extraction facility.
  2. Ethanol and C02 extraction are two commonly used methods for extracting CBD and are two of the cleanest ways to extract CBD for human consumption. CO2 extraction, a popular extraction method typically used when extracting smaller quantities of hemp, involves filtering plants through a series of chambers that control temperature and pressure. When different temperatures and units of pressure are applied to cannabis plants, this sophisticated system is able to isolate cannabinoids at a 90% efficiency.
  3. An alternative method is ethanol extraction which involves introducing the solvent ethanol to the hemp plant in order extract cannabinoids. Unlike CO2 extraction, you are able to produce a very high volume of full spectrum extract with this method. This removes unwanted components such as chlorophyll from dried hemp when performed at very cold temperatures.
  4. Once extracted, hemp undergoes an additional step known as chromatography, a mechanism used to remove unwanted plant phytochemicals from the extracted oil. Cannabinoids like CBD have a strong interaction with chromatography media, thus traveling slower than unwanted plant material like chlorophyll which has a weak interaction. Once divided, cannabidiol and other terpenes can be isolated and undesirable plant material can be disposed of.
  5. Many CBD oil products also undergo what is known as decarboxylation. This involves heating the cannabinoids into a form that allows the cannabinoids to immediately interact with the endocannabinoid system making the compound more usable throughout the body. When the extracted oil is decarboxylated it is converted from CBDA to CBD, thus removing the acid form so it’s readily bioavailable.
  6. Once decarboxylated, the CBD hemp oil can be consumed directly, however it may not have a favorable taste. Instead, this oil can be mixed with a carrying oil such as hemp seed or coconut oil, turned into CBD capsules, or processed into a powder or slab isolate form for consumer use.
What Is CBD Isolate?/h6>
  1. CBD isolate contains only one cannabinoid: CBD. It is an extracted cannabidiol, stripped of additional cannabidiols, terpenes and other plant compounds which may be present, leaving intact CBD in its purest form, containing roughly 99% cannabidiol.
  2. Isolate purity means it does not contain any THC, a psychoactive cannabinoid, making CBD isolate a perfect option for those who seek a THC-free product.
  3. CBD isolate has no taste or odor and can be used to formulate many varieties of CBD products, such as edibles and topical balms, salves and creams. Since CBD isolate is roughly 99% pure, you have control over exactly how much CBD is added to a product (a milligram of CBD isolate equates to about a milligram of CBD.)
What Is Full Spectrum CBD?
  1. Full-spectrum, or whole-plant CBD, retains the full properties of an intact hemp plant. This includes terpenes, cannabinoids, vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, phytonutrients and any other materials that are extracted from the hemp plant. The hemp plant naturally contains over 100 cannabinoids (such as THC, CBD, CBG, CBD and so forth), that, similar to CBD, provide their own unique benefit.
  2. Contrary to logic, yes, a full-spectrum CBD product can be free of THC. While a CBD product can contain THC and varied compositions of any number of cannadiols, it is possible to purify CBD, retaining specially selected compounds, while extracting and discarding others, such as THC.
  3. A full-spectrum CBD product will be far more complex with robust vitality and benefit than an isolate. This is due to the nature of combined cannabinoids at work to activate and interact with various CB1 and/or CB2 receptors when ingested. It's quite simply a larger army at work.
How Can You Benefit From Hemp CBD?
  1. It's important to know what strain and compounds of cannabinoids are present in a product first and foremost. Not all hemp products are created equal. Not all hemp products out there contain CBD, even while they claim to. Furthermore, if they do truly contain CBD, you want to be certain that it is of a potency and quality deeming a merit of maximum absorption and optimum bioavailability. I encourage you to do you own research, however, a good product should label clearly its benefits and what its unique formula is intended to address. If ever you have questions about 4phive products, we are always available to answer your questions. If we don't have them, we'll search high and low and get them. We, too, are always learning something new.
  2. Generally speaking though, without getting into the specific and known attributes of which cannabinoids interact with various receptors, patients can hope to gain relief from an extensive list of ailments and symptoms. For starters, inflammation, pain, anxiety, psychosis, seizures, spasms, and other conditions without disconcerting feelings of lethargy or dysphoria. More on all of that later. First, understand the absorption part of consumable products. The inferior verses the patent-pending nano-sized micro-emulsion that 4phive delivers.

Want to dive in a littler deeper and find out how you can benefit from using a full-spectrum (whole plant) CBD oil product? Visit our Benefits of Hemp CBD page.